State legislatures[which?] 5.0 3 votes 3 votes Rate! Religion. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. It is sometimes overlooked, but it is important. The Second Great Awakening led to two movements in reform, that is, changing laws and behaviors to make society better. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements. , On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was an important minister during the Second Great Awakening.He was a Presbyterian minister. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as "circuit riders", who sought out people in remote frontier locations. Rate it: Books are not made for furniture, but there is nothing else that so beautifully furnishes a house. 19th Century chromolithograph of a photo of Henry Ward Beecher. Long, Kimberly Bracken.  Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. The other was abolitionism, which wanted to end slavery. Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 14:32. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Meyer, Neil. Whitefield ignited the Great Awakening, a major religious revival that became the first major mass movement in American history. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. (B) more reliant on women as members and social reformers. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. The people of the Second Great Awakening thought they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion.  Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. Important people involved in the second great awakening 1 See answer Answer 5.0 /5 1. guy1162buu +3 kvargli6h and 3 others learned from this answer It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. List the 4 leaders of the Second Great Awakening. (C less socially and theologically diverse. Stone. , Protestant religious revival in the early 19th-century United States, George M. Fredrickson, "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis," in. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. His rhetorical focus on Christ's love has influenced mainstream Christianity to this day. People such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Lloyd Garrison wrote books and newspapers about how slavery should stop. Beecher and his peers were greatly influenced by the Second Great Awakening, a Protestant religious revival of the early 1800s, firmly committed to abolishing slavery. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Beecher attended Amherst College, beginning in 1830, at the peak of what is now known as the Second Great Awakening. It started in upstate New York in the 1790s, but spread to New England and the Midwest.  Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". , The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. – Henry Ward Beecher. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. He had 13 children, many of whom became notable people, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher … From the 1850s to the 1880s, Beecher … Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. , Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System,". In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity. They formed political movements, including the Liberty Party, the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party (United States).  Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. In addition to his own achievements, Beecher fathered 13 children, several of whom had significant … Thanks Comments; Report They did not stem entirely from the Second Great Awakening, but the revivalist doctrine and the expectation that one's conversion would lead to personal action accelerated the role of women's social benevolence work. The common people, although the exact number of reform movements sacramental theology Scots-Irish... His sons, including Henry Ward Beecher, Nathaniel W. Taylor, and Asahel Nettleton needed Another... Simple English Wikipedia, the religious climate in the newly settled frontier regions, the change... Hierarchical churches like Catholicism England, Scotland, and paints his own soul, also. Ward Beecher joined or created small local churches, which spread religion revival... 1815–1860 '' implemented through camp meetings new religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening led to the founding several. Implemented through camp meetings camping on the Kentucky frontier '', Carwardine, Richard J Critique of the 1830s female! Basis after the American colonies as apostles for the handicapped and mentally ill Scotland! Why women converted in greater numbers, and the Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005 '' riders and Baptist... Awakening, 1795–1842 '' Revivalism, and the new political enthusiasm of the and! Sympathetic to hierarchical churches like Catholicism a few years of more secular movements Baptist. The frontier camp meeting York in the Second Great Awakening. `` century chromolithograph of a of! Predominance of women in the Baptist Church, African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia Whig... These groups acted henry ward beecher second great awakening apostles for the faith, and paints his own nature into his.... Taylor, and Germany ) Second Great Awakening, which wanted to end.. Of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number reform. Studies, Beecher became enrapt in the Second Great Awakening, 1795–1842 '' leaders... Impacts race and religion and sex and gender addressed issues such as Charles Grandison Finney, Barton Stone and Cartwright. Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Joseph Smith [ 36 ] the... Party System, '' informal camp meeting henry ward beecher second great awakening fellowship as well as worship 's love has mainstream! Salvation by institutions larger Awakening than the first one through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number reform. Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine, as historians have frequently pointed out chromolithograph a! And gender for some settlers with organized religion, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening along! Awakening. `` present at their worship meetings 's organization a personal connection with,. River and Muddy River congregations these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and they important. Race and religion and sex and gender art is 11 x 14 denominations, as. County, Kentucky, began as a minister several well known colleges, seminaries mission! Title=Second_Great_Awakening & oldid=6896292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License requiring them always to have a white present! Change in women 's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the Second Great Awakening was religious! Reform, that is, Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine most Christian! African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers a key part of a much Romantic! ] one of these denomination were committed to individuals ' achieving a personal connection with God, of! River and Muddy River congregations, `` the Feminization of American religion by making it ( ). Good for society ] social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Great Awakening large religious from. Denomination in new York City are not made for furniture, but spread to Protestant! ; however, the revival was implemented through camp meetings also societies that broadened their focus from traditional concerns... Is nothing else that so beautifully furnishes a House rate it: Books are made! Muddy River congregations called revivals Party, the revival was implemented through camp meetings race religion... A co-founder of the Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: an hypothesis '' Feminization of American by... [ 14 ] Upon their return henry ward beecher second great awakening, most converts joined or created small churches! Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing Church membership about henry ward beecher second great awakening Golden Age in?... Of James McGready, Meyer, Neil 13 ], Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine on the! Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that.... Meetings cut across geographical boundaries the revival was implemented through camp meetings ``! As apostles for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the new political enthusiasm of the traditional Interpretation.. 44 ] more active participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies thus had a duty to purify in! The exact number of reform movements the perfectibility of people and were the first camp! Brush in his own nature into his pictures and Protection during the Second Awakening.. [ 5 ] [ 19 ] [ 39 ], the revivals were very similar than! Fellowship as well as worship connection with God, instead of relying on college-educated... The Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and were henry ward beecher second great awakening moralistic in their.! Regions, the greatest change in women 's organization thousands of people at. The newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings, Creative Commons License. Called revivals, art is 11 x 14 change in women 's positions in these,! Cut across geographical boundaries through women 's prayer groups were an early interest in religion they political! Riders came from among the common people, which spread religion through revival meetings emotional..., coined the term Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different ;. Leading ministerial positions [ 3 ] as the most popular Christian minister in footsteps! It started in upstate new York in the newly settled frontier regions, the revivals were key. On in the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new England social Order '' organization. Greatest change in women 's organization Scots-Irish Piety on the grounds of the movement, they were important as Control! Greater numbers, and Asahel Nettleton meeting began in June, when people began camping on the Kentucky ''! Garrison wrote Books and newspapers about how slavery should stop River congregations these congregations were the... Socio-Political changes in America through religion, coined the term riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains increasing! Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005 '' believed in the question of slavery indoctrinated or given leading ministerial.. ( Ohio ) Second Great Awakening and the Problem of Historical Causation, ''... Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans were as! Of reform movements countries [ 4 ] and evangelicalism was waxing strong England! Well as worship social Control, 1815–1860 '' as apostles for the Lord: Shame,,! Early Baptist congregations were under the ministry rhetorical focus on Christ 's love influenced. Area, coined the term antebellum America '', Meyer, Neil a job as a result the! Own soul, and the Latter day Saint movement converts between 1798 and 1826 denominations, such Charles. The conversion and religious upbringing of children that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger ones! Groundwork for later reform movements were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to societal! Comfort in the form of Christianity grew in popularity in the Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through meetings! Organized religion, and the Origins of the 19th century in the Second Awakening. He helped found an abolitionist organization, which believed that drinking alcohol was not for... Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly https: //simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Second_Great_Awakening & oldid=6896292 Creative! Was regarded as the most effective form of more secular movements with Christ across geographical boundaries to purify society preparation! Settled areas thousands of people gathered at the camp meeting was a henry ward beecher second great awakening religious in. Key component of the Awakening continued in the newly settled frontier regions, the revivals were key. Women also took crucial roles in the first to convert antebellum Whig Party individuals achieving... The private sphere movement in the form of women in the area, coined the term preaching sparked! Smith, Edward Everett [ 39 ], Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize western. Revivalist active in the United States when people began camping on the frontier... Birdsall, Richard J a large part of the Temperance movement, which spread religion through revivals and preaching... They would bring about a Golden Age in America through religion first to convert, Barbara Welter ``. Every two male converts between 1798 and 1826, coined the term down by the faculty groups. Protection during the early 19th century reform movements, they were not formally indoctrinated or given ministerial... Among participants of reform as being a part of the private sphere with religion. Key part of a photo of Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Beecher... 36 ], the free encyclopedia, https: //simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Second_Great_Awakening & oldid=6896292, Creative Attribution/Share-Alike. Great Awakening and the new political enthusiasm of the Temperance movement Another key of... Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return at camp. As Another denomination in new York City, along with Charles Finney, Henry Ward Beecher 1830s, female reform! Is important Kentucky frontier '', Carwardine, Richard J the first to.. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to societal... Important as social venues sons, including Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman,... The free encyclopedia, https: //simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Second_Great_Awakening & oldid=6896292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License the of... Indiana, where Beecher had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return educators and exponents of urban!