Current insecticides useful for this treatment would include products that contain bifenthrin (Talstar, Onyx), permethrin (Astro), or cyfluthrin (Tempo). Most feeding by adults is done within 25 cm of the terminal buds. The white pine weevil is known to attack many species of pine and spruce, and occasionally Douglas-fir, but white pine is the preferred host. The white pine weevil is one of the most serious pests of white pine in the area. One of the first symptoms of attack in the spring is the presence of pitch flowing from the feeding punctures in the previous year's leading shoot. Systemics such as imidacloprid (e.g. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. Insect parasitoids and predators as well as birds feed on this pest. Read more about the weevils and the management regimes designed for them: White Pine Weevil or Spruce Weevil (Pissodes strobi (Peck)) Warren Root Collar Weevil (Hylobius warreni (Wood)) Emergence holes of adult twig weevils. Or have you noticed the top of the tree is brown, drooping or curved? Photo by Laurie Kerzicnik. Rodents will consume overwintering adults. Terminal killed by boring larvae of white pine weevil. You can also band your trees or apply an insecticide to manage white pine weevils. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. Fir balsam twig aphid . Root collar weevils are typically pests of young plantations and can cause mortality by feeding on a tree's root collar. * The above images are copyrighted by The University of Georgia and the individual photographers or organizations. Pest description and damage White pine weevils are brown beetles with light blotches on the highly curved back. Image 3 - White pine weevil: larvae Pissodes strobi (Peck) E.B. White Pine Weevil Treatment. Walker - Vermont Dept. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. From birth to death the white pine weevil chews and eats its way through various sections and levels of Colorado blue and Engelmann spruces. of Forests UGA0907017b. Spruce northern pine weevil, Pales weevil, white pine weevil, spruce spider mite, spruce needle miner, gall adelgids . The white pine weevil has only one generation per year, but the adults can live and continue laying eggs for several years. The worst soils for white pine are clay or poorly drained. Adults (Image 1) spend the winter in the leaf litter under or near host trees. Often, they also attack blue, Norway and Serbian spruces. They’re one of the most destructive tree pests known. Near the apex of the front wings is a large white patch. If several lateral branches are competing to be the terminal leader, all but one can be pruned away. As a goal, approximately 40 to 50% crown closure of the overstory trees should be maintained (figure 9). Management & Treatment Options Your best course of action is to prune trees before mid-July to remove the pests’ eggs. It has irregularly shaped patches of brown and white scales on the front wings. Pine Pales weevil, Northern pine weevil, Zimmerman pine moth Spruce eastern spruce gall adelgid, (Norway, spruce spider mite, red, black, Cooley spruce gall adelgid, white, Colorado) spruce needle miner ! White pine weevil damage on . Feeding injury can also stunt or distort trees. In July look for curled, dead, or dying terminal leaders that may have the appearance of a "shepherd's crook." Close planting reduces damage to Sitka spruce by the white pine weevil in the early years of a plantation. It has irregularly shaped patches of brown and white scales on the front wings. Damage on Scots pine and Colorado blue and Serbian spruces often extends downward through two or three year's growth. When mature, the larva is approximately 7 mm long, legless, and slightly C-shaped. Find more of our publications and books at extensionpubs.umext.maine.edu. While eastern white and jack pine are most vulnerable, white pine weevils can develop in more than 20 tree species. Rotations may be as long as 120 years for white pine, but 80 years is usually enough to produce sawlogs on good sites. The white pine weevil is considered the most destructive insect pest of eastern white pine in North America. Exit holes of at base of area damaged by White Pine Weevils. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. On warm spring days they fly or crawl to the leaders of suitable hosts usually during the period from mid-March through April. Walker - Vermont Dept. View our Privacy Policy for more information. A little white pine weevil damage is not detrimental to a young white pine's health, and the damage can simply be pruned away. The larval stage, which lives beneath the bark, is white with a distinct brown head. Prune and destroy before these are visible. No single control method by itself can provide adequate pest suppression. Pissodes strobi (Peck) E.B. Pine white pine weevil, white pine aphid, European pine shoot moth, Nantucket pine tip moth . James F. Dill, Pest Management Specialist Clay A. Kirby, Insect Diagnostician For information about UMaine Extension programs and resources, visit extension.umaine.edu. Regenerating white pine under an existing canopy is often a good idea. A blue spruce disfigured due to a missing leader caused by White Pine Weevil damage. What Is It: The white pine weevil is a dark brown beetle with white and burnt-orange spots. Stems will continue to grow in deformed. This is the result of punctures made by adults in the process of feeding and cutting egg-laying sites. Damage: Come mid-June or early July, you may notice the top of your evergreen is curling and appears dead. 2. White pine weevil is native to North America and considered the most destructive insect pest of eastern white pine. Pesticides are poisonous. Merit, Xytect 2F, etc.) They crawl up the trunks of nearby host trees to the terminal shoot and begin to feed before mating. Tree Service Experts Since 1880. The standard approach to manage white pine weevil is to spray insecticides in spring so that they cover the terminal. At this point the tree is now permanently crooked. April (mid) PestHost. Susceptible Trees: As their name suggests, they do prefer Eastern white pine trees. Observations of resin droplets on the leader in early spring may be an indication that adults are feeding. White pine weevil has several naturally occurring parasitoids, such as Lonchaeid flies and wasps, but they do not provide adequate control. Pissodes strobi. White pine weevil feed on a large number of conifers including many that are planted in Christmas tree nurseries. The larvae also feed on the terminal bud so that the … On occasion, they’re found on Douglas firs. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. Susceptible species include white pines, all … While they do stunt tree growth, white pine weevils do not kill your tree. All Rights Reserved. First Sign: In late March or early spring, you’ll see a shiny, sticky droplet directly below your evergreen’s bud. When mature, the larva is approximately 7 mm long, legless, and sli… Walker - Vermont Dept. Your best course of action is to prune trees before mid-July to remove the pests’ eggs. Feeding damage rarely kills trees but can cause multiple leaders to develop on infested trees as the terminal leader is killed. The white pine weevil kills the top of conifers and is the most serious economic insect pest of white pine. The first symptom evident from successful attack by this pest is glistening droplets of resin on terminal leaders of the host plant in late March and April. During this time feeding by adults is not considered important since little is done before they enter the leaf litter to overwinter. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Save For Later Print Available in Spanish, James B. Hanson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. This treatment is directed at the overwintered adults to kill them before they lay eggs. The recommended approach for control of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi, is to apply an Integrated Pest Management system (IPM) (Alfaro et al. ©2020 The Davey Tree Expert Company. See White Pine Weevil from Oregon State University for more information and photographs. Birds may feed on larvae and pupae. Most damage is done by the larval stage. The third weevil management strategy is to make preventative systemic insecticide applications in the fall that target the weevils as they feed on the phloem the following spring. The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). If you have an evergreen, there’s a chance it could attract white pine weevils. Fertilization and weevil attack; Weevil management . Non-chemical options: Only the top leader and upper branches of the tree are affected by the insect. Larvae are found just under the bark of infested terminals from May through July. The good news is infested trees are seldom killed. 1995) in which several tactics are combined. One or more side branches (laterals) may then bend and grow upward to take over as the terminal leader. Adapted from Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide, University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM). Prune all but one live lateral shoot just below the damaged terminal. Like most weevils, the adult has a long snout-like beak from which small antennae arise. The larvae feed on needles and also mine shoot tips, often distorting or killing back the terminals and causing trees to appear deformed. White Pine Weevil. The white pine weevil is considered the most destructive insect pest of eastern white pine in North America. Application of a registered formulation of an insecticide should be made from late March through April when droplets of resin are first detected. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Monitor for wilting terminal shoots in early summer, and prune out and destroy infested terminal sho… The manual provides readers guidance for identifying and evaluating important health problems of eastern white pine in New England, including white pine weevil, blister rust, bast scale, and needle damage, Caliciopsis canker, and red rot or red-ring rot. This preventative control measure should be reserved for landscapes, nurseries, or Christmas tree plantations that have a history of significant white pine weevil … There are two ways to lessen weevil populations on young white pines in yards: 1. The pupal chambers called "chip cocoons" are filled with shredded wood and can be found inside the terminal at this time. The White Pine Weevil. That the white pine weevil causes serious damage to white pine is not news; that the weevil can be controlled effectively through the application of a poison spray which kills the female before eggs are laid is welcome news to foresters. They feed downward on the inner bark of the leader. The adult is a small rust-colored weevil that is about 4-6 mm long. Often, this looks like a Shepard’s crook. Hundreds of eggs may be deposited in one terminal leader. This condition may result in a forked tree. One of the first symptoms of The adult is a small rust-colored weevil that is about 4-6 mm long. The infested terminal can be clipped, and a new leader can be trained. White pine weevil is one of the earliest pests we treat for in the spring. You can also band your trees or apply an insecticide to manage white pine weevils. The infested leaders should be pruned and burned before mid-July to destroy life stages of this pest. Colorado blue, Norway, and Serbian spruces, Scots, red, pitch, jack, and Austrian pines, and occasionally Douglas-fir are also attacked. White Pine Weevil—Pissodes strobi The white pine weevil, which kills the top of conifers, is the most serious economic insect pest of white pine. This should be … of Forests UGA4836010b, Image 2 - White pine weevil: pitch flow caused by feeding damage. Image 1 - White pine weevil: adult Pissodes strobi (Peck) E.B. For several years after successful attack by this pest, a few more laterals may grow as leaders. Most unmanaged stands have a natural crown closure of 70 to 80%. Using growing degree days in the spring can be helpful to prevent damage. Trees three to 20 feet tall are typically attacked. White pine weevils also can harm red, pitch, jack, Scot and Austrian pines. !!! Because of the multiple ways a weevil uses a blue spruce during its life cycle, a multi-step approach is necessary for white pine weevil treatment. Each weevil attack reduces tree height growth by 40 to 60 percent each year. White Pine Weevil Management in Christmas Tree Plantations Christmas trees and conifers in the landscape throughout the country are susceptible to attack from white pine weevils, Pissodes strobi(Peck) (WPW). Damage from white pine weevil can be prevented by spraying the upper trunk and terminals of spruce and pine in early to mid-April and again two weeks later with products that contain bifenthrin, permethrin or cyfluthrin. The eggs hatch in about seven days. White pine is most common on well-drained, sandy soils. Knowing when to treat can be tricky. Eucalyptus trees in California are attacked by at least 14 other introduced insects, including the bluegum psyllid (Ctenarytaina eucalypti), eucalyptus longhorned borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata), and eucalyptus snout beetle or gumtree weevil (Gonipterus scutellatus), which are now under good biological control. The females prefer young trees to chew holes and lay eggs on the terminal leader. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. boxwood psyllidBoxwood. Management: blue spruce. Fertilization and weevil attack; Silvicultural methods of control. A second important silvicultural practice is to maintain high densities of young white pine until the trees reach about 6 m (20 ft) in height. From mid-April through early May, females mate and each deposits one to five eggs in feeding wounds (Image 2). White Pine Weevil Control Tips Attacks white pines, spruces More common in pure plantings Adults emerge in early spring when T > 50 F (as early as March in PA), Treat in early spring when adults emerge with borer pesticide Mechanically remove Shepard’s Crooks before August 1. Host Trees. Apply these products at … Near the apex of the front wings is a large white patch. They lay their eggs from late April through early June. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. 1. The effect of these natural enemies is not significant enough to prevent damage. Larvae reach maturity in mid- to late July and pupate in the infested terminal. Are new needles on your evergreen growing in brownish-red? Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. may be applied using soil drench or soil injection applications. Adults overwinter in the forest litter and, in early spring, they emerge when the temperature rises to 2-4oC. Individually, each … Effective management of the white pine weevil requires an integrated approach that ideally brings together biological, horticultural, and mechanical pest control methods with the judicious use of insecticides. The white pine weevil prefers to attack trees exposed to direct sunlight. of Forests UGA0907018b. Adults grow to about 0.25 inch long and feed on shoots and needles of pine and spruce. Details of the treatment ar.e presented in the following article. View our privacy policy. Colorado State University. Trees become susceptible to injury when they reach a height of about three feet. To reduce white pine weevil damage, three options are available: Open-grown plantation. White pine weevils are only threatening when white pines are young. Adults emerge in 10 to 15 days through small holes at the base of the dead terminal of the host plant usually in late July and August. A very thorough presentation on the biology, ecology, and management of white pine weevil with good images. The systemics will also kill early instar larvae as they begin tunneling in the phloem … Injury to eastern white pine and some species of spruce is usually confined to the previous year's terminal leader (Image 4). From late July to early September, those eggs emerge as adults. The white pine weevil has one generation per year. White pine weevils may be causing those changes. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Here’s the basic info to help you identify if white pine weevils are hurting your trees. The emphasis is silviculture but much pertains to nurseries. This species kills the terminal leader primarily of eastern white pine. The larval stage, which lives beneath the bark, is white with a distinct brown head. April (early) ! Walker - Vermont Dept. Only the terminal leader needs to be sprayed. *Cooley spruce gall adelgid of Douglas fir can be controlled from spring through fall when temperature is above 60 F. This will help the tree correct its form. Why do we need this? Spray Applications. The adult weevils overwinter in the litter and emerge very early (first few warm days) in the spring to lay eggs. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. When the terminal is heavily infested larvae (Image 3) feed side by side in a ring encircling the stem. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. Therefore, thinning should be delayed. Eastern white pine is most attractive to this pest when trees are less than 20 feet in height. Larvae chew and burrow completely around the stem causing the current year's growth to wilt, droop, and eventually die. White Pine Weevil Fact Sheet. If larvae are found, remove the entire leader. 3. Mechanical Control - If excessive pitch is found, cut open the area of pitch exit and look for the larvae. of Forests UGA0907019b, Image 4 - White pine weevil damage to terminal P issodes strobi (Peck) E.B. This should promote single stem dominance on the affected host plant. View our. Like most weevils, the adult has a long snout-like beak from which small antennae arise. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. Attack blue, Norway and Serbian spruces method by itself can provide adequate pest suppression are seldom.... 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